Audio-Visual Glossary

Y

 

YAHOO: Name of a major Internet service provider. “Yahoo” was the first major on-line Web-based directory and search program on the Internet. It has an Internet program that searches for key words in the files and documents found on the World Wide Web. Yahoo also provides websites for the Sony and Universal music companies to sell their artists’ music to subscribers on the Internet.

 

YAMAHA: A Japanese company who, in addition to their motorcycles and snowmobiles, also makes high quality musical instruments. Yamaha was, first and foremost, a musical instrument company. They started with an original goal to make high quality pianos much more available to average income persons. Yamaha makes guitars, guitar amplifiers organs, synthesizers, trumpets, saxophones, flutes, and some of the best sounding pianos in the world. They also make consumer level audio equipment (no video or tv’s). Moreover, they also produce audio mixing equipment and mix-boards, some of which are used to mix live performances of the top acts in the world.

 

Y-CONNECTOR: 1) Any adapter placed in an electronic signal flow line to permit a split feed of an electronic signal. It is literally like a “Y” in a road. The signal can go down both roads and does so.

2) A connector on the back of many different brands of home consumer video equipment such as DVD players, VCRs and TVs that is the connection point for the luminance (“Y”) part of the video signal. (Luminance means brightness. It’s the black and white part of the picture signal as opposed to the colours.) This connector must be used to get the full picture signal on component video systems, along with and in addition to the colour signal connectors. An RCA phono-type connector is usually used for the Y signal and it is used along with the connectors for the colour parts of the picture—”Cr, Cb” or “Pr, Pb” in these types of component video systems. (COMPONENT VIDEO, Cr, Cb and Pr, Pb are defined as separate entries.)

 

Y/C VIDEO (S-VIDEO): A “Y/C” cable is the wire which must be used in order to play Super VHS video information. Such a connection exists on DVD players too. This is the only way to view a Super VHS signal. If a Y/C connector and wire is not used, you don’t have Super VHS quality pictures.

For more technical information, read on. Y/C is a video signal interconnect system that keeps the luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals separate and is found on Super VHS videocassette recorders and players and DVD players. Note: The better DVD players usually also have component (Y, Cr, Cb or Y, Pr, Pb) signals which are even higher quality than the Super VHS Y/C signal. A 4-pin mini DIN connector is used. (DIN, Cr, Cb and Pr, Pb are defined as separate entries.)

 

Y, Cr, Cb: A designation used on video equipment, such as Sony Betacam gear, as well as several different brands of DVD video players, showing that the inputs or outputs so labelled are for component video signals. The “Y” stands for “luminance” (brightness), “C” stands for “colour,” “r” is “red” and “b” is “blue.” Note that the colour signal for “green” is not on a separate connector. Green is created by the internal circuits of a component TV or video monitor that accepts the Y, Cr, Cb signals. The internal electronic circuits use a simple math formula to create the additional (green) colour by comparing the difference between the colours it received (red and blue) with what should be there as the totality of the colour signal. The basic colours in any video system are red, green and blue - and the colour video signal is 30% red, 11% blue and 59% green. The electronic circuits that produce the colours in a video system use these percentages to make the colours. Green is the largest percentage of the colour signal information and because of that it was chosen to be the colour created internally by a TV set or video monitor to save on the amount of information that has to be recorded onto a videotape, DVD, etc. Note: The Y, Cr, Cb system is a component colour video standard for DVD players, VCRs, AV Receivers, and all components a home consumer or even professional audiovisual studios use. Compare this with glossary entry Y, Pr, Pb, which are the component colour video standard connections for Digital Television broadcasting and receiving DTV - meaning that it is used by the broadcast stations and by consumer television sets which receive the broadcasts. The colour standards Y, Cr Cb and Y Pr Pb. are very similar, but not identical, and a slightly different formula is used to produce the colour information signals. It’s not a case of them being better or worse than each other, only that the Pr and Pb are for broadcasting Digital TV while the Cr Cb is for video decks and cameras. Some video equipment manufacturers even use Y, Cr, Cb and Y, Pr, Pb interchangeably, though technically the Y, Pr, Pb standard is for DTV broadcasting. (Compare with RGB.)

       

YELLOW BOOK: The Yellow Book was written in 1984 to give the technical specifications for the CD-ROM. The audio parts of the Yellow Book CD-ROM specifications are taken from the original Red Book c.d. specifications published by Sony and Philips in 1980. However, the CD-ROM added text and graphics to the original format and is intended mainly for playback by a computer. Due to this, a separate book was published to give the specifications for the manufacture of CD-ROMs.

 

Your Digital Home: See AOSHSHL TIME WARNER.    

 

Y, Pr, Pb: The component colour video standard for Digital TV broadcasting and receiving (DTV). “Y” is the symbol for “luminance” (brightness), “P” stands for “picture” (“P” does not stand for “progressive” in this case), “r” is “red” and “b” is “blue.” Note that the colour signal for “green” is not on a separate connector in this type of video system. Green is created by the internal circuits of a component TV or video monitor that accepts the Y, Pr, Pb signals. The internal electronic circuits use a simple math formula to create the additional (green) colour by comparing the difference between the colours it received (red and blue) with what should be there as the totality of the colour signal. The basic colours in any video system are red, green and blue - and the colour video signal is 30% red, 11% blue and 59% green. The electronic circuits that produce the colours in a video system use these percentages to make the colours. Note that green is the largest part of the colour signal information and because of that it was chosen to be the colour created internally by a TV set or video monitor to save on the amount of information that has to be broadcast by the t.v. station or satellite. Note: The Y, Pr, Pb system is a component colour video standard for Digital Television broadcasting and receiving (DTV) - meaning that it is used by the broadcast stations and by the television sets that receive the broadcasts. Compare this with Y, Cr, Cb above, which is the component colour video standard for DVD players, VCRs, AV Receivers, and all components a home consumer or even professional audiovisual studios use. These colour standards are very similar, but not identical, and a slightly different formula is used to produce the colour information signals. It’s not a case of them being better or worse than each other, only that the Pr and Pb are for broadcasting Digital TV while the Cr Cb is for video decks and cameras. Some video equipment manufacturers even use Y, Cr, Cb and Y, Pr, Pb interchangeably, though technically the Y, Pr, Pb standard is for DTV broadcasting. (Compare with RGB.)

 

YUV: “Y” = luminance and “U” and “V” are the symbols used to indicate component colour signals. YUV inputs and outputs are designated on some brands of video equipment to show that they are component video systems. (The letters “U” and “V” may have come about from European video designations, but top video engineers in the USA could not give their exact origin.) YUV each has its own separate input and output, i.e. the Y, the U and the V are all separate connection points. Other manufacturers of video equipment name their component video signals as “Y, Cr, Cb” or “Y, Pr, Pb” as noted in the glossary entries above. There is really very little difference between them all, other than Pr Pb is commonly used specifically for Digital TV, while the others are for actual video equipment, video decks, some DVD players, etc.

 

 

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